In 2018, when Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg testified before the U.S. While this study was underway, Facebook issued substantial API updates to improve its security and privacy in light of the Cambridge Analytica scandal. For example, Facebook requires users to be identified by their real name and has suspended the accounts of some Native American users whose names contain phrases that Facebook’s filter evaluates as fake (Haimson and Hoffmann 2016). Even when content is not removed, platforms rely on algorithms to present users with content they determine to be relevant or Rx24 Reviews engaging for each individual. Thus, whereas the first version of Yarns could stand on its own, Yarns Microsub Server requires users to install additional IndieWeb plugins (IndieAuth and Micropub), then log in to a third-party client of their choice. I received comments from a few IndieWeb contributors encouraging me to consider adapting Yarns into a Microsub server. It is built by a large international community, and almost all IndieWeb builders do so as a hobby rather than as a career.
By enclosing data in “walled gardens” or “silos,” large platforms act as gatekeepers for access. The dominance of large platforms means that content creators must negotiate with opaque algorithmic filters to promote their content (Wu, Pedersen, and Salehi 2019), further entrenching their gatekeeper status. Dourish (2019) suggests that one of the obstacles for addressing such challenges in HCI is that the field has staked its claim to legitimacy in the concept of user experience (UX). But simultaneously, the ease-of-use that has been fostered by platforms remains a positive influence on user experience designs. And the potential that individuals can address inclusivity problems through personal invitations is constrained by their personal networks and their life experience. However, evidenced by the increasing domination of a small number of centralized Web platforms, and ways in which their business models have structured their design, it is clear that “social media’s potential challenge to corporate media was absorbed by informational capitalism” (Gehl 2015b, p.
As noted above, the participatory potential of Web platforms has been celebrated in scholarship asserting that Web 2.0 flattened barriers for creating and distributing Web content and so empowered individuals to actively participate online instead of simply consuming what others created (Shirky 2008; Shirky 2010; Bruns 2008). This view was famously espoused in Time Magazine’s selection of “you” for person of the year in 2006: “For seizing the reins of the global media, for founding and framing the new digital democracy, for working for nothing and beating the pros at their own game, TIME’s Person of the Year for 2006 is you” (Grossman 2006). As a mythological base for the contemporary Web, this remains a powerful argument. The ability to display images was implemented in the Mosaic Web browser and then became a standard in HTML 2.0 (Raggett et al. Moreover, MF2 is constantly iterated upon to incorporate new post types and other properties, or to reflect cases where actual use deviates from the standard. That discussions related to IndieWeb building blocks are predictive of GitHub activity is expected, since conversations related to IndieWeb-related development (which is typically hosted on GitHub) are likely to use language related to IndieWeb technologies.
I identify that chat activity is generally concentrated among a centre of extremely active participants, and that members of that centre are more likely also be active on GitHub. One type of development activity likely to be under-represented is people’s work on personal websites which are often not shared on GitHub. This dissertation’s concern with relationships among human values, work practices, and technical artifacts demonstrates a perspective of IndieWeb as a sociotechnical system. At the same time, IndieWeb sites embrace conventional social features of Web 2.0, such as likes, sharing (analogous to retweeting), and social feeds. Helmond (2015) articulated that platforms’ influence extends beyond their own sites and applications, asserting that the Web is undergoing platformization defined by a simultaneous decentralization of platform features across the Web and recentralization of individuals’ data to be stored and analyzed on platform servers. My goal has been to investigate the role of designers’ values in IndieWeb’s development, including how concentrations of power and influence affected individuals’ capacity to participate in decisions that include their values. These active users form a soft centre of influence over IndieWeb’s overall direction, including what is discussed in its online spaces and how. Topic 13: Defining IndieWeb 2. Many of the most strongly representative documents labelled with this topic are parts of debates, including sharp criticisms of non IndieWeb-projects (though such comparison is present in topic 5 as well).